Specified Risk Material Under the Enhanced Feed Ban
Enhanced feed ban regulations
came into effect on July 12, 2007. The regulations were designed to complement
existing measures to eliminate bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) from the
Canadian cattle herd as quickly as possible. The regulations have led to significant
changes, and have impacted livestock producers across Ontario.
BSE-infected cattle, the BSE agent concentrates in tissues known as specified
risk materials (SRM). BSE is believed to be spread when cattle consume feed containing
SRM from infected cattle. To protect public health, these tissues have been removed
from all cattle slaughtered for human consumption since 2003.
the spread of BSE among cattle, Canada banned most mammalian animal proteins,
including SRM, from cattle feed in 1997. To better protect animal health at large,
as of July 12, 2007 enhanced federal regulations also ban SRM from all other animal
feeds, pet foods and fertilizers.
According to the Canadian Food Inspection
Agency (CFIA), removing SRM from the entire animal feed system greatly reduces
the potential contamination of cattle feed during production, distribution, storage
or use. Applying precautions to pet food and fertilizer materials limits the possibility
of cattle and other susceptible animals being exposed to these products. The enhanced
regulations should result in a speedier eradication of BSE from the national cattle
Specified Risk Materials:
SRM are those cattle
tissues which are thought to have the potential of transmitting BSE.
- the skull, brain, trigeminal ganglia (nerves attached to
the brain), eyes, tonsils, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglia (nerves attached
to the spinal cord) of all cattle aged 30 months or older, and
- the distal
ileum (portion of the small intestine) of cattle of all ages.
whole carcass is considered to be SRM for any dead bovine animal from which the
SRM has not been removed.
Livestock producers who handle, transport
or dispose of cattle remains need to be aware of their responsibilities under
federal and provincial regulations.
O. Reg. 106/09, Disposal of Dead
Farm Animals under Ontario's Nutrient Management Act, 2002 allows carcasses of
cattle that die on a farm and their SRM to be disposed of on-farm. Farm operators
may dispose of carcasses by burial, composting or incineration, or by depositing
carcasses or SRM in a disposal vessel or an approved anaerobic digester. The federal
Health of Animals Regulations require all cattle remains, including compost derived
from cattle to remain on the farm property where the animal died or a farm property
contiguous to it unless it is legally transported to a legal disposal site. It
is also necessary to continue reporting the Canadian Cattle Identification Agency
(CCIA) ear tag numbers of deadstock to the database for removal.
Any cattle deadstock that are moved from the farm
where the animal died must comply with the requirements governing the transportation
and identification requirements of the federal Health of Animals Regulations.
A federal permit will be required if moving a cattle carcass to another non-contiguous
farm property for disposal or for moving the carcass to a disposal facility licensed
under O. Reg. 105/09-Disposal of Deadstock under Ontario's Food Safety and Quality
Act, 2001 or to a waste disposal facility approved under Health of Animals Act
and Ontario's Environmental Protection Act. The application form is available
through the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). The contact information is
provided below. The permits are free, issued for 90 days, and may involve an on-farm
inspection by CFIA staff.
Producers and those transporting dead animals
should be aware that they are only allowed to deliver cattle deadstock to a facility
that has a CFIA permit to receive SRM material. Check with staff at your normal
delivery site to ensure that they have this permit.
The federal regulations
require carcasses and any SRM removed from the carcass that are then removed from
the farm or other place where the animal died to be stained with an indelible
dye that is safe for consumption for animals.
In most cases dead animal
collectors have assumed responsibility for staining cattle carcasses prior to
removal. Nonetheless, cattle producers who normally use the services of a dead
animal collector are advised to discuss this with their service provider.
Under the previous regulatory regime, people who transported deadstock in Ontario
were required to have a clearly displayed marker affixed to their transport vehicle.
Beginning March 27th, 2009 a marker is no longer required except for collectors
licensed under O. Reg. 105/09. However, all persons transporting deadstock must
ensure that the following minimum requirements in the provincial regulations are
- Vehicle, trailer or transport container must be designed
and equipped to prevent leakage or escape of the materials being transported ,
that come into contact with a dead animal during transport must be constructed
with impervious materials and be capable of withstanding repeated cleaning and
- Dead animals must be transported without being in public view,
- Dead animals must not be transported in the same vehicle as live animals
or food for human consumption,
- After delivering to a licensed disposal
facility or permitted site, the vehicle must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected
before leaving the facility premises.Cleaning and sanitizing must be done before
leaving a disposal facility.
- Prior to transporting dead cattle a permit
must be obtained from the CFIA,
- Prior to being transported all dead cattle
are to be stained down the back in accordance with federal law, have Canadian
Cattle Identification Agency (CCIA) ear tag attached and other imposed conditions.
Record keeping requirements have been
added under the CFIA regulations. Producers must record the following information
for any movement of SRM and cattle deadstock off-farm:
- name and
address of the transporter
- date of movement
- name of
the dye used to mark the deadstock or SRM
- Canadian Cattle Identification
Agency (or Quebec) tag number
- the combined weight of SRM and carcasses
considered SRM, as well as the number of carcasses, and
- the destination.
Because of the long incubation period for BSE, these records
must be kept for 10 years.
The 1997 feed ban that prohibits
most proteins derived from mammals from use in ruminant feed still applies. These
materials can still be fed to non-ruminants including chickens, pigs and horses.
However, since July 12, 2007, all feed, regardless of the species it is fed to,
must be manufactured from SRM-free ingredients.
For more information
about the new SRM regulations contact the CFIA at 1-800-442-2342 or visit www.inspection.gc.ca/bse
Contacts for more information:
Canadian Food Inspection
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
Dead Animal Disposal Advisor
This document is not a description of all of the requirements contained
in O. Reg. 105/09, and the regulation itself must be to read to determine
all such requirements. In the event that there is a conflict between the
FSQA or O. Reg. 105/09 and this document, the FSQA and O. Reg. 105/09
Stakeholders should seek their own legal advice if they have concerns
about the requirements or applicability of O. Reg. 105/09, or about the
requirements or applicability of any other Act, regulation or policy mentioned
in this document.
This document last was updated on March 26, 2009, and will be updated
from time to time. Always check the OMAFRA website to ensure that you
have the most up to date version of this document.