Figure 3 shows a graph with probability of survival on left side. Days in 1st, 2nd and 3rd lactation are indicated on the lower axis. Probable risks of reform are shown on the right side. The green survival line begins at the top right and decreases as it passes from first to third lactation. Reform risks reach highs between 1st and 2nd lactation and between 2nd and 3rd lactation; The highest peak is reached at the end of the 3rd lactation.

Cull cow welfare is important to the dairy industry's reputation